by V.S. Herrell, B.S., M.E., CH.D.
“You can imagine that I look back on my life’s work with calm satisfaction. But from nearby it looks quite different. There is not a single concept of which I am convinced that it will stand firm, and I am uncertain whether in general I am on the right track.” – Einstein quote at the age of 70 years
Throughout his early years, Einstein was an unknown outside of the narrow world of physics. But starting in 1919 he became celebrated around the world. Einstein owed his sudden fame to the headline writers of newspapers in England and America. A world exhausted by war was eager for distractions, and the “bending of light” provided instantly beguiling slogans. As a wild-haired eccentric with a sense of humor and a rumpled charm, Einstein made for good newspaper copy.
Albert Einstein is held up by the establishment as a rare genius who drastically changed the field of theoretical physics. As such, he is made an idol to young people, and his very name has become synonymous with genius. The truth, however, is very different. The reality is that Einstein was no “rocket scientist” . He was a relatively ignorant person who could not even tie his own shoelaces. He contributed nothing original to the field of physics or any other science, but on the contrary he stole the ideas of other men, and the establishment media made him a hero.
When we actually examine the life of Albert Einstein, we find that his only brilliance lay in his ability to plagiarize and steal other people’s ideas, passing them off as his own. Einstein’s education, or lack thereof, is an important part of this story. The Encyclopedia Britannica says of Einstein’s early education that he “showed little scholastic ability.” It also says that at the age of 15, “with poor grades in history, geography and languages, he left school with no diploma.” Einstein himself wrote in a school paper of his “lack of imagination and practical ability.” In 1895, Einstein failed a simple entrance exam to an engineering school in Zurich. This exam consisted mainly of mathematical problems, and Einstein showed himself to be mathematically inept in this exam. He then entered a lesser school hoping to use it as a stepping stone to the engineering school he could not get into, but after graduating in 1900, he still could not get a position at the engineering school. Unable to go to the school as he had wanted, he got a job (with the help of a friend) at the patent office in Bern. He was to be a technical expert third class, which meant that he was too incompetent for a higher qualified position. Even after publishing his so-called groundbreaking papers of 1905 and after working in the patent office for six years, he was only elevated to a second class standing. Remember, the work he was doing at the patent office, for which he was only rated third class, was not quantum mechanics or theoretical physics, but was reviewing technical documents for patents of everyday things; yet he was barely qualified.
He would work at the patent office until 1909, all the while continuously trying to get a position at a university, but without success. All of these facts are true, but now begins the myth. Supposedly, while working a full-time job, without the aid of university colleagues, a staff of graduate students, a laboratory, or any of the things normally associated with an academic setting, Einstein in his spare time wrote four groundbreaking essays in the field of theoretical physics that were published in 1905. Many people have recognized the impossibility of such a feat, including Einstein himself, and therefore Einstein has led people to believe that many of these ideas came to him in his sleep, out of the blue, because indeed that is the only logical explanation of how an admittedly inept fellow could have written such documents at the age of 26, without any real education. However, a simpler explanation exists:
Einstein stole the ideas and plagiarized the papers.
Therefore, we will look at each of these ideas and discover the sources of them. It should be remembered that these ideas are presented by Einstein’s worshippers as totally new and completely different, each of which would change forever the landscape of science. These four papers dealt with the following four ideas:
(1) The foundation of the photon theory of light;
(2) The equivalence of energy and mass;
(3) The explanation of Brownian motion in liquids;
(4) The special theory of relativity.
Let us first look at the last of these theories, the theory of relativity. This is perhaps the most famous idea falsely attributed to Einstein. Specifically, this 1905 paper dealt with what Einstein called the Special Theory of Relativity (the general theory would come in 1915). This theory contradicted the traditional Newtonian mechanics and was based upon two premises: (1) in the absence of acceleration, the laws of nature are the same for all observers; and (2) since the speed of light is independent of the motion of its source, then the time interval between two events is longer for an observer in whose frame of reference the events occur at different places than for an observer in whose frame of reference the events occur in the same place. This is basically the idea that time passes more slowly as one’s velocity approaches the speed of light, relative to slower velocities where time would pass faster.
This theory has been validated by modern experiments and is the basis for modern physics. But these two premises are far from being originally Einstein’s. First of all, the idea that the speed of light was a constant and was independent of the motion of its source was not Einstein’s at all, but was proposed by the Scottish scientist James Maxwell. Maxwell studied the phenomenon of light extensively and first proposed that it was electromagnetic in nature. He wrote an article to this effect for the 1878 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. His ideas prompted much debate, and by 1887, as a result of his work and the ensuing debate, the scientific community, particularly Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928), Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) and Edward Williams Morley (1838-1923), reached the conclusion that the velocity of light was independent of the velocity of the observer. Thus, this piece of the special theory of relativity was known 27 years before Einstein wrote his paper.
This debate over the nature of light also led Michelson and Morley to conduct an important experiment, the results of which could not be explained by Newtonian mechanics. They observed a phenomenon caused by relativity but they did not under-stand relativity. They had attempted to detect the motion of the earth through ether, which was a medium thought to be necessary for the propagation of light. In response to this problem, in 1889, the Irish physicist George Francis FitzGerald (1851- 1901), who had also first proposed a mechanism for producing radio waves, wrote a paper which stated that the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment could be explained if “the length of material bodies changes, according as they are moving through the ether or across it, by an amount depending on the square of the ratio of their velocities to that of light.”
This is the theory of relativity, 13 years before Einstein’s paper.
Furthermore, in 1892, Lorentz, from the Netherlands, proposed the same solution and began to greatly expand the idea. All throughout the 1890s, both Lorentz and FitzGerald worked on these ideas and wrote articles strangely similar to Einstein’s special theory detailing what is now known as the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction. In 1898, the Irishman Joseph Larmor wrote down equations explaining the Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction and its relativistic consequences, seven years before Einstein’s paper. By 1904, Lorentz trans- formations, the series of equations explaining relativity, were published by Lorentz. They describe the increase of mass, the shortening of length, and the time dilation of a body moving at speeds close to the velocity of light. In short, by 1904, everything in Einstein’s paper regarding the special theory of relativity had already been published.
The French mathematician and physicist Jules Henri Poincare (April 29, 1854- July 12, 1912) had, in 1898, written a paper unifying many of these ideas. He stated, seven years before Einstein’s paper, that: “[W]e have no direct intuition about the equality of two time intervals. The simultaneity of two events or the order of their succession, as well as the equality of two time intervals, must be denned in such a way that the statements of the natural laws be as simple as possible.”
Anyone who has read Einstein’s 1905 paper will immediately recognize the similarity. Thus we see that the only thing original about the Einstein paper was the term “special theory of relativity.” Everything else was plagiarized. Over the next few years, Poincare became one of the most important lecturers and writers regarding relativity; but he never, in any of his papers or speeches, mentioned Albert Einstein. Thus, while Poincare was busy bringing the rest of the academic world up to speed regarding relativity, Einstein was still working in the patent office in Bern, and no one in the academic community thought it necessary to give much credence or mention to Einstein’s work. Most of these early physicists knew he was a fraud.
BROWNIAN MOTION This brings us to the explanation of Brownian motion, the subject of another of Einstein’s 1905 papers. Brownian motion describes the irregular movement of a very small body (such as a grain of pollen suspended in water) arising from the thermal energy of the molecules of the fluid in which the body is immersed. The movement had first been observed by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown in 1827. The explanation of this phenomenon has to do with the kinetic theory of matter, and it was the American Josiah Gibbs and theAustrian Ludwig Boltzmann who first explained this occurrence, not Albert Einstein. In fact, the mathematical equation describing the motion contains the famous Boltzmann constant, k.1 Between these two men, they had explained by the 1890s everything in Einstein’s 1905 paper regarding Brownian motion.
MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE The subject of the equivalence of mass and energy was contained in a third paper published by Einstein in 1905. This concept is expressed by the famous equation E=mc2. Einstein’s biographers categorize this as “his most famous and most spectacular conclusion.” Even though this idea is an obvious conclusion of Einstein’s earlier relativity paper, it was not included in that paper but was published as an afterthought later in the year. Still, the idea of energy-mass equivalence was not original with Einstein.
That there was an equivalence between mass and energy had been shown in the laboratory in the 1890s by both J.J. Thomson of Cambridge and by W. Kaufmann in Gottingen. In 1900, Poincare had shown that there was a mass relationship for all forms of energy, not just electromagnetic energy. Yet, the most probable source of Einstein’s plagiarism was Friedrich Hasenohrl, one of the most brilliant, yet unappreciated physicists of the era. Hasenohrl was the teacher of many of the German scientists who would later become famous for a variety of topics. He had worked on the idea of the equivalence of mass and energy for many years and had published a paper on the topic in 1904 in the very same journal which Einstein would publish his plagiarized version in 1905. For his brilliant work in this area, Hasenohrl had received in 1904 a prize from the prestigious Vienna Academy of Sciences.
Furthermore, the mathematical relationship of mass and energy was a simple deduction from the already well-known equations of Scottish physicist James Maxwell. Scientists long understood that the mathematical relationship expressed by the equation E=mc2 was the logical result of Maxwell’s work; they just did not believe it. Thus, the experiments of Thomson, Kaufmann and finally, and most importantly, Hasenohrl, confirmed Max- well’s work. It is ludicrous to believe that Einstein developed this postulate, particularly in light of the fact that Einstein did not have the laboratory necessary to conduct the appropriate experiments.
In this same plagiarized article of Einstein’s, he suggested to the scientific community, “Perhaps it will prove possible to test this theory using bodies whose energy content is variable to a high degree (e.g., salts of radium).” This remark demonstrates how little Einstein understood about science, for this was truly an outlandish remark. By saying this, Einstein showed that he really did not understand basic scientific principles and that he was writing about a topic that he did not know. In fact, in response to this article, J. Precht remarked that such an experiment “lies beyond the realm of possible experience.”
PHOTON THEORY OF LIGHT The last subject dealt with in Einstein’s 1905 papers was the foundation of the photon theory of light. Einstein wrote about the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect is the release of electrons from certain metals or semiconductors by the action of light. This area of research is particularly important to the Einstein myth, because it was for this topic that he unjustly received his 1921 Nobel prize.
But again, it is not Einstein, but Wilhelm Wien and Max Planck (1858-1947) who deserve the credit. The main point of Einstein’s paper, and the point for which he is given credit, is that light is emitted and absorbed in discrete packets called quanta. This was the explanation for the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect had been explained by Heinrich Hertz in 1888. Hertz and others, including Philippe Lenard, worked on understanding this phenomenon. Lenard was the first to show that the energy of the electrons released in the photoelectric effect was not governed by the intensity of the light but by the frequency of the light. This was an important breakthrough.
Wien and Planck were colleagues, and they were the fathers of modem-day quantum theory. By 1900, Max Planck, based upon his and Wien’s work, had shown that radiated energy was absorbed and emitted in finite units he called quanta. The only difference between his work of 1900 and Einstein’s work of 1905 was that Einstein limited himself to talking about one particular type of energy@light energy. But the principles and equations governing the process in general had been deduced by Planck in 1900. Einstein himself admitted that the obvious conclusion of Planck’s work was that light also existed in discrete packets of energy. Thus, nothing in this paper of Einstein’s was original.
After the 1905 papers of Einstein were published, the scientific community took little notice and Einstein continued his job at the patent office until 1909, when it was arranged for him to take a position at a school. It was not until a 1919 newspaper headline that he gained any notoriety. With Einstein’s academic appointment in 1909, he was placed in a position where he could begin to use other people’s work as his own more easily. He engaged many of his students to look for ways to prove the theories he had supposedly developed, or ways to apply those theories; and then he could present the research as his own, or at least ‘take partial credit. In this vein, in 1912, he began to try to express his gravitational research in terms of a new, recently developed calculus, which was conducive to understanding relativity. This was the beginning of his general theory of relativity, which he would publish in 1915. But the mathematical work was not done by Einstein, he was incapable of it. Instead, it was performed by the mathematician Marcel Grossmann, who used the mathematical principles developed by Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-66). Riemann was the first to develop a sound non-Euclidean geometry, which is the basis of the mathematics used to formulate general relativity.
Einstein published an initial paper in 1913 based upon the work which Grossmann did, adapting the math of Riemann to relativity. But this paper was filled with errors, and the conclusions were incorrect. It appears Grossmann was not smart enough to figure it out for Einstein. So Einstein was forced to look elsewhere to plagiarize his general theory. Einstein published his correct general theory of relativity in 1915, and said prior to its publication that he, “completely succeeded in convincing Hilbert and Klein.” He is referring to David Hilbert, perhaps the most brilliant mathematician of the 20th century, and Felix Klein, another mathematician who had been instrumental in the development of the area of calculus that Grossmann had used to develop the general theory of relativity for Einstein.
Einstein’s statement regarding the two men would lead the reader to believe that Einstein had changed Hubert’s and Klein’s opinions regarding general relativity, and that he had influenced them in their thinking. However, the exact opposite is true. Einstein stole the majority of his general relativity work from these two men, the rest being taken from Grossmann. Hilbert submitted for publication, a week before Einstein completed his work, a paper which contained the correct field equations of general relativity. What this means is that Hilbert wrote basically the exact same paper, with the same conclusions, before Einstein did. Einstein would have had an opportunity to know of Hubert’s work all along, because there were friends of his working for Hilbert and because Einstein had seen Hubert’s paper in advance of publishing his own. Both of these papers were, before being printed, delivered in the form of a lecture.
Einstein presented his paper on November 25,1915 in Berlin and Hilbert had presented his paper on November 20 in Gottingen. On November 18, Hilbert received a letter from Einstein thanking him for sending him a draft of the treatise Hilbert was to deliver on the 20th. So, in fact, Hilbert had sent a copy of his work at least two weeks in advance to Einstein before either of the two men delivered their lectures, but Einstein did not send Hilbert an advance copy of his. Therefore, this serves as proof that Einstein quickly plagiarized the work and then presented it, hoping to beat Hilbert to the punch. Also, at the same time, Einstein publicly began to belittle Hilbert, even though in the previous summer he had praised him in an effort to get Hilbert to share his work with him. Hilbert made the mistake of sending Einstein this draft copy, but still he delivered his work first.
Not only did Hilbert publish his work first, but it was of much higher quality than Einstein’s. It is now known that there are many problems with assumptions made in Einstein’s general theory paper. We know today that Hilbert was much closer to the truth. Hilbert’s paper is the forerunner of the work of Erwin Schrodinger, whose thinking is the basis of all modem day quantum mechanics.
That the men discussed so far were the actual originators of the ideas claimed by Einstein was known by the scientific community all along. In 1940, a group of German physicists meeting in Austria declared that “before Einstein, scientists like Lorentz, Hasenohrl, Poincare etc., had created the foundations of the theory of relativity.”
However, the media did not promote the work of these men. The media did not promote the work of David Hilbert, but instead they promoted the work of Albert Einstein. As we mentioned earlier, this general theory, as postulated by Hilbert first and in plagiarized form by Einstein second, stated that light rays should bend when they pass by a massive object. In 1919, during the eclipse of the Sun, light from distant stars passing close to the Sun was observed to bend according to the theory. This evidence supported the general theory of relativity, and the controlled media immediately seized upon the opportunity to prop up Einstein as a hero, at the expense of the true genius, David Hilbert.
On November 7th, 1919, The London Times ran an article, the headline of which proclaimed, “Revolution in Science—New Theory of the Universe—Newtonian ideas Overthrown.” This was the beginning of the force-feeding of the Einstein myth to the masses. In the following years, Einstein’s earlier 1905 papers were propagandized and Einstein was heralded as the originator of all the ideas he had stolen. Because of this push by the media, in 1921, Einstein received the Nobel prize for the work he had stolen in 1905 regarding the photoelectric effect.
The establishment of the Einstein farce between 1919 and 1921 was an important coup for political Zionism. As soon as Einstein had been established as an idol to the popular masses of England and America, his image was promoted as the rare genius that he is erroneously believed to be today. As such, he immediately began his work as a tool for world Zionism. The masses bought into the idea that if someone was so brilliant as to change our fundamental understanding of the universe, then certainly we ought to listen to his opinions regarding political and social issues. This is exactly what world Jewry wanted to establish in its ongoing effort of social engineering. They certainly did not want someone like David Hilbert to be recognized as a rare genius. After all, this physicist had come from a German, Christian background. His grandfather’s two middle names were “Furchtegott Leberecht” or “Fear-God Live-Right.” In August of 1934, the day before a vote was to be taken regarding installing Adolf Hitler as president of the Reich, Hilbert signed a proclamation in support of Hitler, along with other leading German scientists, that was published in the German newspapers. So the establishment certainly did not want David Hilbert receiving the credit he deserved.
The establishment did not want Max Planck receiving the credit he deserved either. This German’s grandfather and great-grandfather had been important German theologians, and during World War II he would stay in Germany throughout the war, supporting his fatherland the best he could.
The establishment certainly did not want the up-and-coming Erwin Schrodinger to be heralded as a genius to the masses. This Austrian physicist would go on to teach at Hitler University in Austria, and he wrote a public letter expressing his support for the Third Reich. This Austrian’s work was a forerunner of modern physics, even though it had been criticized by Einstein, who apparently could not understand it.
The establishment did not want to have Werner Heisenberg promoted as a rare genius, even though he would go on to solidify quantum theory and contribute to it greatly, as well as develop his famous uncertainty principle, in addition to describing the modem atom and nucleus and the binding energies that are essential to modern chemistry. No, the establishment did not want Heisenberg promoted as a genius because he would go on to head the German atomic bomb project and serve prison time after the war for his involve- ment with the Third Reich.
No, the establishment did not want to give credit to any of a number of Germans, Austrians, Irishmen, Frenchmen, Scotsmen, Englishmen and Americans who had contributed to the body of knowledge and evidence from which Einstein plagiarized and stole his work. Instead, they needed to erect Einstein as their golden calf, even though he repeatedly and often embarrassed himself with his non-factual or nearsighted comments regarding the work he had supposedly done. For example, in 1934, The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette ran a front-page article in which Einstein gave an “emphatic denial” regarding the idea of practical applications for the “energy of the atom.” The article says:
“But the “energy of the atom” is something else again. If you believe that man will someday be able to harness this boundless energy to drive a great steamship across the ocean on a pint of water, for instance–then, according to Einstein, you are wrong.”
Again, Einstein clearly did not understand the branch of physics he had supposedly founded, though elsewhere in the world at the time theoretical research was underway that would lead to the atomic bomb and nuclear energy. But after Einstein was promoted as a god in 1919, he made no real attempts to plagiarize any other work. Rather, he began his real purpose – evangelizing for the cause of political Zionism. Though he did publish other articles after this time, all of them were coauthored by at least one other person, and in each instance, Einstein had little if anything to do with the research that led to the articles; he was merely recruited by the coauthors in order to lend credence to their work. Thus freed of the pretense of academia, Einstein began his assault for world Zionism.
In 1921, Einstein made his first visit to the United States on a fund-raising tour for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and to promote Zionism. In April of 1922, Einstein used his status to gain membership in a Commission of the League of Nations. In February of 1923, Einstein visited Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. In June of 1923, he became a founding member of the Association of Friends of the New Russia. In 1926, Einstein took a break from his communist and Zionistic activities to again embarrass himself scientifically by criticizing the work of Schrodinger and Heisenberg. Following a brief illness, he resumed his political agenda, wanting an independent Israel and at the same time a world government.
In the 1930s he actively campaigned against all forms of war, although he would reverse this position during World War II, when he advocated war against Germany and the creation of the atomic bomb. In 1939 and 1940, Einstein, at the request of other Jews, wrote two letters to Roosevelt urging an American program to develop an atomic bomb to be used on Germany–not Japan. Einstein would have no part in the actual construction of the bomb, theoretical or practical, because he lacked the skills for either. In December of 1946, Einstein rekindled his efforts for a world government, with Israel apparently being the only autonomous nation. This push continued through the rest of the 1940s. In 1952, Einstein, who had been instrumental in the creation of the state of Israel, both politically and economically, was offered the presidency of Israel. He declined. In 1953, he spent his time attacking the McCarthy Committee, and he supported communists such as J. Robert Oppenheimer. He encouraged civil disobedience in response to the McCarthy trials. Finally, on April 18, 1955, Einstein died.
The establishment no longer had to worry about Einstein making stupid statements. His death was just the beginning of his usage and exploitation by Israel. The controlled media continued to promote the myth of this “superman” long after his death, and as more and more of the men who knew better died off, the establishment was more and more able to aggrandize his myth and lie more boldly. This brazen lying has culminated in Time magazine naming Einstein “The Person of the Century” at the close of 1999. It may be demonstrated that the lies have become more bold with the passage of time because Einstein was never named “Man of the Year” while he was alive, but, over 40 years after his death, he was named “Person of the Century.”
But more interesting is the article by Stephen Hawking which purports to be a history of the theory of relativity. In it, Hawking admits many of the things in this article, such as the fact that Hilbert published the general theory of relativity before Einstein and that FitzGerald and Lorentz deduced the concept of relativity long before Einstein. Hawking also writes:
“Einstein was deeply disturbed by the work of Werner Heisenberg in Copenhagen, Paul Dirac in Cambridge and Erwin Schrodinger in Zurich, who developed a new picture of reality called quantum mechanics. Einstein was horrified by this. Most scientists, however, accepted the validity of the new quantum laws because they showed excellent agreement with observations. They are the basis of modem developments in chemistry, molecular biology and electronics and the foundation of the technology that has transformed the world in the past half-century.”
This is all very true, yet the same magazine credits Einstein with all of the modern developments that Hawking names, even through Einstein was so stupid as to be vehemently against the most important idea of modem science, just as he opposed Schrodinger’s work, which was far ahead of its time. The same magazine admits that “success eluded” Einstein in the field of explaining the contradictions between rela- tivity and quantum mechanics. Einstein, who proves himself to be one of the least intelligent of 20th-century scientists, refused to believe in quantum theory.
If Time wanted to give the title to an inventor or scientist, then the most obvious choice would have been men like Hilbert, Planck or Heisenberg. If they wanted to give it to the scientist who most fundamentally changed the landscape of 20th-century science, then the obvious choice would be William Shockley. This Nobel prize winning scientist invented the transistor, which is the basis of all modem electronic devices and computers, everything from modem cars and telephones, videocassette recorders and watches, to the amazing computers which have allowed inconceivable advances in all fields of science. Without the transistor, all forms of science today would be basically in the same place that they were in the late 1940s.
His radical scientific and genetic views led the establishment to financially destroy Shockley who founded the first company in the Silicon Valley, his hometown, to devel- op computer chips. The establishment hired away his entire staff and used them to start Fairchild Semiconductor, the company that today is known as Intel.
After World War II, Einstein demonstrated his dislike of the Germans in the following statements. He was asked what he thought about Germany and about reeducating the Germans after the war and said:
“The nation has been on the decline mentally and morally since 1870. Behind the Nazi Party stands the German people, who elected Hitler after he had in his book and in his speeches made his shameful intentions clear beyond the possibility of understanding. The Germans can be killed or constrained after the war, but they cannot be re-educated to a democratic way of thinking and acting.”
1 Brownian motion is important because it demonstrates the reality of molecules, chemical particles, and the Brownian motion formula allows one to calculate the number of molecules per unit volume by measuring the distance traveled by the visible particles and determining the mean kinetic energy of the particles involved.
2 The general theory of relativity applied the principles of relativity to the gravitational pull of heavenly and other objects, and implied that light rays appear to “bend” as they pass near a massive object – not because the rays actually bend, but because the fabric of space itself is curved into some sort of “fourth dimension” (disregarding the dimension of time) by gravity, or because gravity itself consists of a curvature in space, caused by the influence of mass. Such is the current consensus among the majority of scientists today.